Vol 56(2022) N 5 p. 735-755; DOI 10.1134/S0026893322050119
E.S. Pshennikova1*, A.S. Voronina1
Dormancy: There and Back Again1Bakh Institute of Biochemistry, Federal Research Center of Biotechnology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119071 Russia
Received - 2022-02-11; Revised - 2022-03-27; Accepted - 2022-03-27
Many cells are capable of maintaining viability in a non-dividing state with minimal metabolism under unfavorable conditions. These are germ cells, adult stem cells, and microorganisms. Unfortunately, a resting state, or dormancy, is possible for tuberculosis bacilli in a latent form of the disease and cancer cells, which may later form secondary tumors (metastases) in different parts of the body. These cells are resistant to therapy that can destroy intensely dividing cells and to the host immune system. A cascade of reactions that allows cells to ener and exit dormancy is triggered by regulatory factors from the microenvironment in niches that harbor the cells. A ratio of forbidding and permitting signals dictates whether the cells become dormant or start proliferation. The only difference between the cell dormancy regulation in normal and pathological conditions is that pathogens, mycobacteria, and cancer cells can influence their own fate by changing their microenvironment. Certain mechanisms of these processes are considered in the review.
tumor cells, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, dormancy, metastasis, mesenchymal stem cells, metastatic niches