Vol 56(2022) N 5 p. 668-683; DOI 10.1134/S0026893322050132
G.R. Vinogradskaya1*, A.V. Ivanov2, A.A Kushch3
Mechanisms of Survival of Cytomegalovirus-Infected Tumor Cells1Konstantinov St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", Gatchina, Leningrad oblast, 188300 Russia
2Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia
3Gamaleya National Research Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 123098 Russia
Received - 2022-03-28; Revised - 2022-04-19; Accepted - 2022-04-19
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA and proteins are often detected in malignant tumors, warranting studies of the role that HCMV plays in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. HCMV proteins were shown to regulate the key processes involved in tumorigenesis. While HCMV as an oncogenic factor just came into focus, its ability to promote tumor progression is generally recognized. The review discusses the viral factors and cell molecular pathways that affect the resistance of cancer cells to therapy. CMV inhibits apoptosis of tumor cells, that not only promotes tumor progression, but also reduces the sensitivity of cells to antitumor therapy. Autophagy was found to facilitate either cell survival or cell death in different tumor cells. In leukemia cells, HCMV induces a "protective" autophagy that suppresses apoptosis. Viral factors that mediate drug resistance and their interactions with key cell death pathways are necessary to further investigate in order to develop agents that can restore the tumor sensitivity to anticancer drugs.
cytomegalovirus, oncomodulation, apoptosis, autophagy, anticancer therapy, anticancer drug resistance