2021  1,540
2020  1,374
2019  1,023
2018  0,932
2017  0,977
2016  0,799
2015  0,662
2014  0,740
2013  0,739
2012  0,637
2011  0,658
2010  0,654
2009  0,570
2008  0,849
2007  0,805
2006  0,330
2005  0,435
2004  0,623
2003  0,567
2002  0,641
2001  0,490
2000  0,477
1999  0,762
1998  0,785
1997  0,507
1996  0,518
1995  0,502
Vol 56(2022) N 5 p. 649-667; DOI 10.1134/S0026893322050028 Full Text

D.V. Avdoshina1, A.S. Kondrashova1, M.G. Belikova1,2,3, E.O. Bayurova1,2*

Murine Models of Chronic Viral Infections and Associated Cancers

1Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 108819 Russia
2Gamaleya National Research Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 123098 Russia
3Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, 117198 Russia

Received - 2022-03-18; Revised - 2022-04-12; Accepted - 2022-04-13

Viruses are now recognized as bona fide etiologic factors of human cancer. Carcinogenic viruses include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, indirectly), and several candidate human cancer viruses. It is estimated that 15% of all human tumors worldwide are caused by viruses. Tumor viruses establish long-term persistent infections in humans, and cancer is an accidental side effect of viral replication strategies. Viruses are usually not complete carcinogens, supporting the concept that cancer results from the accumulation of multiple cooperating events, in which human cancer viruses display different, often opposing roles. The laboratory mouse Mus musculus is one of the best in vivo experimental systems for modeling human pathology, including viral infections and cancer. However, mice are unsusceptible to infection with the known carcinogenic viruses. Many murine models were developed to overcome this limitation and to address various aspects of virus-associated carcinogenesis, from tumors resulting from xenografts of human tissues and cells, including cancerous and virus infected, to genetically engineered mice susceptible to viral infections and associated cancer. The review considers the main existing models, analyzes their advantages and drawbacks, describes their applications, outlines the prospects of their further development.

murine models, chronic viral infection, viral carcinogenesis, viral oncogenes, xenograft, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), Epstein-Barr virus, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1