2019  1,023
2018  0,932
2017  0,977
2016  0,799
2015  0,662
2014  0,740
2013  0,739
2012  0,637
2011  0,658
2010  0,654
2009  0,570
2008  0,849
2007  0,805
2006  0,330
2005  0,435
2004  0,623
2003  0,567
2002  0,641
2001  0,490
2000  0,477
1999  0,762
1998  0,785
1997  0,507
1996  0,518
1995  0,502
Vol 54(2020) N 1 p. 1-12; DOI 10.1134/S0026893320010100 Full Text

G.V. Kochneva1*, G.F. Sivolobova1, A.V. Tkacheva1, A.A. Gorchakov2,3, S.V. Kulemzin2

Combination of Oncolytic Virotherapy and CAR T/NK Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Cancer

1State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector", Koltsovo, Novosibirsk oblast, 630559 Russia
2Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
3Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia

Received - 2019-03-16; Revised - 2019-03-16; Accepted - 2019-03-19

Multiple lines of evidence indicate that CAR-T cell based therapy and oncolytic virotherapy display robust performance in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient mouse models. Rare, yet highly successful attempts to combine these therapeutic platforms have also been reported. Interestingly, both approaches have shown pronounced efficacy in human trials, albeit these were limited to just a handful of malignancies. Specifically, CD19-specific CAR-T cell products (Kymriah and Yescarta) have been highly effective against B cell lymphomas and leukemias, whereas administering oncolytic viruses resulted in pronounced responses in melanoma (Imlygic and Rigvir) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (Oncorine) patients. It is well established that efficacy of virotherapy as a standalone approach is largely restricted by the pre-existing and mounting immune response against viral antigens, and requires a relatively functional immune system, which is not typical for cancer patients, with the current antitumor therapy schemes. On the other hand, the most important challenges faced by the current CAR-T cell therapy formats include the lack of targetable tumor-specific surface antigens, tumor cell heterogeneity, and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, not to mention the unacceptably high costs. Remarkably, combining the two approaches may help address their individual bottlenecks. Namely, local acute inflammatory reaction induced by the viral infection may reverse tumor-associated immunosuppression and lead to more efficient homing and penetration of CAR-expressing lymphocytes into the tumor stroma; combined viral and CAR-mediated cytotoxicity may ensure the production of immunogenic cell debris and efficient presentation of tumor neoantigens, and potently recruit the patient's own bystander immune cells to attack cancer cells. Thus, testing the combinations of CAR-based and virolytic approaches in the clinical setting appears both logical and highly promising.

oncolytic viruses, chimeric antigen receptors, T-cells, NK-cells, virotherapy, anticancer immunity, cancer therapy