2016  0,799
2015  0,662
2014  0,740
2013  0,739
2012  0,637
2011  0,658
2010  0,654
2009  0,570
2008  0,849
2007  0,805
2006  0,330
2005  0,435
2004  0,623
2003  0,567
2002  0,641
2001  0,490
2000  0,477
1999  0,762
1998  0,785
1997  0,507
1996  0,518
1995  0,502
Vol 51(2017) N 6 p. 906-920; DOI 10.1134/S0026893317060048 Full Text

S.M. Danilov1,2,3*

Conformational Fingerprinting Using Monoclonal Antibodies
(on the Example of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme-ACE)

1University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, USA
2Arizona University, Tucson, USA
3Medical Scientific and Educational Center of Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

Received - 2017-05-07; Accepted - 2017-06-02

During the past 30 years my laboratory has generated 40+ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to structural and conformational epitopes on human ACE as well as ACE from rats, mice and other species. These mAbs were successfully used for detection and quantification of ACE by ELISA, Western blotting, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. In all these applications mainly single mAbs were used. We hypothesized that we can obtain a completely new kind of information about ACE structure and function if we use the whole set of mAbs directed to different epitopes on the ACE molecule. When we finished epitope mapping of all mAbs to ACE (and especially, those recognizing conformational epitopes), we realized that we had obtained a new tool to study ACE. First, we demonstrated that binding of some mAbs is very sensitive to local conformational changes on the ACE surface-due to local denaturation, inactivation, ACE inhibitor or mAbs binding or due to diseases. Second, we were able to detect, localize and characterize several human ACE mutations. And, finally, we established a new concept - conformational fingerprinting of ACE using mAbs that in turn allowed us to obtain evidence for tissue specificity of ACE, which has promising scientific and diagnostic perspectives. The initial goal for the generation of mAbs to ACE 30 years ago was obtaining mAbs to organ-specific endothelial cells, which could be used for organ-specific drug delivery. Our systematic work on characterization of mAbs to numerous epitopes on ACE during these years has lead not only to the generation of the most effective mAbs for specific drug/gene delivery into the lung capillaries, but also to the establishment of the concept of conformational fingerprinting of ACE, which in turn gives a theoretical base for the generation of mAbs, specific for ACE from different organs. We believe that this concept could be applicable for any glycoprotein against which there is a set of mAbs to different epitopes.

angiotensin I-converting enzyme, monoclonal antibodies, conformation tissue specificity, drug/gene lung targeting